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Galvanic Anodes

Magnesium Anodes




In cathodic protection, the most widely used sacrificial anodes are magnesium anodes. Magnesium anodes are designed for the cathodic protection of steel under fresh, brackish, and seawater conditions Magnesium anodes are also used extensively for underground structures and pipelines. Anodes can be supplied with cable connections welded to meet the customer’s requirements. For underground applications, anodes are packed in cotton bags with a gypsum / bentonite / sodium backfill to ensure immediate effect on installation and a constant environment through the anode’s working life.

Magnesium anodes are available in two standard alloys as follows;

Standard Alloy (AZ63): -1.55V w.r.t. copper-copper sulphate reference electrode for use in average soil resistivity conditions.
High Potential Alloy: -1.75V w.r.t. copper-copper sulphate reference electrode for use in high soil resistivity conditions.

Standard Composition

 
Mg
Al
Zn
Mn
Si
(max)
Cu
(max)
Ni
(max)
Fe
(max)
Other Imp.
(max)
Each
Total
High Potential Balance 0.01 max - 0.50-1.30 0.05 0.02 0.001 0.03 0.05 0.30
  Balance 5.30-6.70 2.50-3.50 0.15-0.70 0.10 0.02 0.002 0.003 -- 0.30
  Balance 5.30-6.70 2.50-3.50 0.15-0.70 0.30 0.05 0.003 0.003 -- 0.30
  Balance 5.0-7.0 2.0-4.0 0.15-0.70 0.30 0.10 0.003 0.003 -- 0.30

Electrochemical Properties

 
Open-Circuit Voltage
(-V respect to Cu/CuS04)
Closed-Circuit Voltage
(-V respect to Cu/CuS04)
Actual Capacity
(Ah/lb)
Current Efficiency
(%)
High Potential
1.77~1.82
0.01 max
1.64~1.69
0.50-1.30
 
Balance
5.30-6.70
2.50-3.50
0.15-0.70
 
Balance
5.30-6.70
2.50-3.50
0.15-0.70

Standard Dimensions of Type ‘D’ Anode


Standard Dimensions of Type ‘D’ Anode

 
Mg
Anodes
Cu
(Max.)
A(in.)
B(in.)
C(in.)
D(in.)
9D2
9
2 3/4
3
27
25 3/4
Strip
14D2
14
2 3/4
3
41 7/8
40 1/2
Strip
 20D2
20
2 3/4
3
59 3/4
57 3/4
Strip
9D3
9
3 1/2
3 3/4
13 7/8
10 1/2
Wire
17D3
17
3 1/2
3 3/4
25 1/4
21 1/2
Strip
32D5
32
3 1/2
5 3/4
19 7/8
16 1/2
Strip
48D5
48
3 1/2
5 3/4
30 1/8
28 1/2
Strip

Standard Dimensions of Type ‘S’ Anode


Standard Dimensions of Type ‘S’ Anode

 
Weight
(lb)
Anodes
A(in.)
B(in.)
C(in.)
3S3
3
3
3
4.5
5S3
5
3
3
7.5
9S3
9
3
3
13.5
17S4
17
4
4
17
32S5
32
5
5
21
48S5
48
5
5
31
60S4
60
4
4
60

Standard Dimensions of Tank Internal Anodes

Magnesium anodes for water storage tanks internal are available with complete hatch assembly to hang the magnesium anodes through access windows provided on the tank roof.

203.2mm (8”) diameter x 406mm (16”) long and 22.7Kg (50-lbs) weight
203.2mm (8”) diameter x 812mm (32”) long and 45.4KG (100-lbs) weight

Magnesium Ribbon Anode


Magnesium Ribbon Anode

The conventional magnesium cast anode is an economical and dependable source of current in soils and waters of comparatively low electrolytic resistivity. However, at higher resistivities, the problem becomes supplying enough current for protection without installing an excessive weight of anodes. In this case magnesium ribbon anodes offer minimum resistance to earth per unit weight of anode installed.

Chemical Composition

Mg
Al
Mn
Zn
Ca
(max)
Si
(max)
Cu
(max)
Ni
(max)
Fe
(max)
Other Imp. (max)
Each
Total
AZ31
Balance
2.5-3.5
0.2-1.0
0.7-1.3
0.04
0.05
0.01
0.001
0.002
0.01
0.30
High Potential
Balance
0.01 max
0.5-1.3
--
--
--
--
0.001
0.03
0.05
0.30

Electrochemical Properties

Open-Circuit Voltage
(-V respect to Cu/Cuso4)
Closed-Circuit Voltage
(-V respect to Cu/Cuso4)
Actual Capacity
(Ah/lb)
Current Efficiency
(%)
AZ31
1.57~1.67
1.47~1.57
>=501.7
>=50
High Potential
1.77~1.82
1.64~1.69
>=499.4
>=50

Dimensions

The magnesium ribbon anode is available in ¾” × ?” diameter & 1,000 ft standard length with average weight of 0.24-lb/ft.

Aluminum Anode


Aluminum Anode
 

Aluminum anodes have long been used in the fight against corrosion offshore. Applications for aluminum anodes are used primarily in seawater applications include ship hulls, tank interiors, offshore structures, submerged pipelines, piers, pilings, etc.

Aluminum anodes are designed for optimum performance under a variety of environmental conditions and temperature ranges. Cast in a variety of alloys, sizes and weights, anodes provide maximum performance in seawater and brackish environments. Custom shapes and sizes can be made.


Aluminum Anode

Aluminum anodes are not used in fresh water, except as impressed current anodes. They are not used underground. An alloy of aluminum-zinc and indium is used as a sacrificial anode on reinforced concrete structures. Aluminum anodes are commonly used in process vessels containing brine. At temperatures above 120°F (49°C), however, the current output may be reduced.



Aluminum anodes are commercially available in three standard alloys as follows:

Galvalum I™* - contains zinc and mercury for use in seawater
Galvalum II™*- contains zinc and mercury for use in saline mud
Galvalum III™ - contains zinc and indium for use in seawater, brackish water, and saline mud
* Seldom used due to mercury content.

To get more information about aluminum anodes and their dimension, kindly contact AFIC sales department.

Zinc Anodes

Zinc anodes are the most traditional anodes and were first used more than 160 years ago by Sir. Humphery Davy for protection of warships. In modern times, zinc anodes are widely used and are designed for the cathodic protection of steel in salt water, brackish water, fresh water & saline mud environments and for underground structures and pipelines. Zinc anodes can be supplied with cable connections welded to requirements. For underground applications, anodes are packed in cotton bags with a gypsum/bentonite mixture to ensure immediate effect on installation and a constant environment through the anode’s working life.

Zinc anodes are commercially available in two standard alloys as follows;

ASTM B418 Type I – for salt water and brackish water
ASTM B418 Type II – high purity for underground and fresh water

AFIC supply Zinc anodes in different shapes according to customer’s request. There are hull, condenser, tank anodes and bracelet shape anodes. The anodes also can be made in strings.

To get more information about Zinc anode and their dimensions, kindly contact AFIC sales department.

Zinc Ribbon Anodes


Zinc Ribbon Anodes

Zinc ribbon anodes are used in a variety of applications. They are used for cathodic protection on buried pipelines, for A.C. mitigation on pipelines, for sacrificial cathodic protection of secondary bottoms on above-ground storage tanks, for A.C. mitigation grounding mats and for other corrosion protection applications.

Dimensions

The zinc ribbon anodes are available in following dimensions;

Super: 25.4mm x 31.75mm (1” x -1/4”) diameter, 30.5m (100 ft) standard length and average weight of 3.570Kg/m (2.4-lb/ft)
Plus: 15.88mm x 22.22mm (5/8” x 7/8”) diameter, 61m (200 ft) standard length and average weight of 1.785Kg/m (1.2-lb/ft)
Standard: 12.7mm x 14.28mm (1/2" x 9/16”) diameter, 152m (500 ft) standard length and average weight of 0.8925Kg/m (0.6-lb/ft)
Small: 8.73mm x 10.32mm (11/32" x 13/32”) diameter, 305m (1,000 ft) standard length and average weight of 0.372Kg/m (0.25-lb/ft)

High Temperature Zinc Anodes

Composition

Element
Analysis (by weight)
Alloying Elements
Al
0.10-0.25 %
Mg
0.05-0.15 %
Zn
Balance
Other Elements
Fe
max. 0.002 %
Cu
max. 0.001 %
Pb
max. 0.006 %
Cd
max. 0.001 %
Others
Total
max. 0.10 %


High temperature zinc anode is a special zinc alloy developed to meet the demand for a sacrificial anode for use at elevated temperatures. AFIC supplied high temperature zinc anodes are practically cadmium free and are recommended for environmental reasons.

Anode Performance Data (ambient sea water)

Element
Capacity
781 Ah/kg (354 Ah/lb)
Consumption rate
11.2 kg/Ayr (24.7 lbs/Ayr)
Closed circuit potential
-1.03 volts (Ag/AgCl)
Specific Gravity
7.13 kg/dm³ (0.258 lbs/cu.in)









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